This section, progress in 2012, summarises the major changes to the legislative picture in 2012, up to and including those in November.
It includes laws, regulations, policies or decrees as per the definition of legislation used in this study. In addition we review major legislative or regulatory proposals that have a reasonable chance of entering into law or being approved by governments.
2012 has been another tough year for the global economy. The continuing debt crisis in the Eurozone, together with economic stagnation in many other developed countries, has created a difficult environment in which to advance legislation on climate change. Kick-starting economic growth has been a priority.
The transformation of energy infrastructure is one of the key requirements to reduce GHG emissions in developed countries. However, it is capital intensive and in many cases will result in a short-term rise in energy costs. Some governments have therefore postponed or scaled back planned investment in long-term infrastructure in favour of short-term measures to keep energy costs low and stimulate growth, irrespective of the carbon impact. This somewhat negative picture contrasts with the progress in developing countries. Many of these are enjoying healthy growth rates while simultaneously developing the legislative and regulatory frameworks to measure and manage GHG emissions.
Moreover, many developing countries are working to improve their resilience to climate impacts as an integral part of ensuring long-term sustainable growth. Overall, we report substantial legislative progress in 18 of the 33 study countries and limited developments in 14. For the first time we report negative progress in one country. Detailed chapters on each country’s climate change-related legislation can be found in the Country by Country sections.
Progress in 2012: